libcloud.compute package

Subpackages

Submodules

libcloud.compute.base module

Provides base classes for working with drivers

class libcloud.compute.base.Node(id, name, state, public_ips, private_ips, driver, size=None, image=None, extra=None, created_at=None)[source]

Bases: libcloud.compute.base.UuidMixin

Provide a common interface for handling nodes of all types.

The Node object provides the interface in libcloud through which we can manipulate nodes in different cloud providers in the same way. Node objects don’t actually do much directly themselves, instead the node driver handles the connection to the node.

You don’t normally create a node object yourself; instead you use a driver and then have that create the node for you.

>>> from libcloud.compute.drivers.dummy import DummyNodeDriver
>>> driver = DummyNodeDriver(0)
>>> node = driver.create_node()
>>> node.public_ips[0]
'127.0.0.3'
>>> node.name
'dummy-3'

You can also get nodes from the driver’s list_node function.

>>> node = driver.list_nodes()[0]
>>> node.name
'dummy-1'

The node keeps a reference to its own driver which means that we can work on nodes from different providers without having to know which is which.

>>> driver = DummyNodeDriver(72)
>>> node2 = driver.create_node()
>>> node.driver.creds
0
>>> node2.driver.creds
72

Although Node objects can be subclassed, this isn’t normally done. Instead, any driver specific information is stored in the “extra” attribute of the node.

>>> node.extra
{'foo': 'bar'}
Parameters:
  • id (str) – Node ID.
  • name (str) – Node name.
  • state (libcloud.compute.types.NodeState) – Node state.
  • public_ips (list) – Public IP addresses associated with this node.
  • private_ips (list) – Private IP addresses associated with this node.
  • driver (NodeDriver) – Driver this node belongs to.
  • size (NodeSize) – Size of this node. (optional)
  • image (NodeImage) – Image of this node. (optional)
  • created_at – The datetime this node was created (optional)
  • extra (dict) – Optional provider specific attributes associated with this node.
destroy()[source]

Destroy this node

Returns:bool

This calls the node’s driver and destroys the node

>>> from libcloud.compute.drivers.dummy import DummyNodeDriver
>>> driver = DummyNodeDriver(0)
>>> from libcloud.compute.types import NodeState
>>> node = driver.create_node()
>>> node.state == NodeState.RUNNING
True
>>> node.destroy()
True
>>> node.state == NodeState.RUNNING
False
reboot()[source]

Reboot this node

Returns:bool

This calls the node’s driver and reboots the node

>>> from libcloud.compute.drivers.dummy import DummyNodeDriver
>>> driver = DummyNodeDriver(0)
>>> node = driver.create_node()
>>> node.state == NodeState.RUNNING
True
>>> node.state == NodeState.REBOOTING
False
>>> node.reboot()
True
>>> node.state == NodeState.REBOOTING
True
class libcloud.compute.base.NodeState[source]

Bases: libcloud.compute.types.Type

Standard states for a node

Variables:
  • RUNNING – Node is running.
  • STARTING – Node is starting up.
  • REBOOTING – Node is rebooting.
  • TERMINATED – Node is terminated. This node can’t be started later on.
  • STOPPING – Node is currently trying to stop.
  • STOPPED – Node is stopped. This node can be started later on.
  • PENDING – Node is pending.
  • SUSPENDED – Node is suspended.
  • ERROR – Node is an error state. Usually no operations can be performed on the node once it ends up in the error state.
  • PAUSED – Node is paused.
  • RECONFIGURING – Node is being reconfigured.
  • UNKNOWN – Node state is unknown.
ERROR = 'error'
MIGRATING = 'migrating'
NORMAL = 'normal'
PAUSED = 'paused'
PENDING = 'pending'
REBOOTING = 'rebooting'
RECONFIGURING = 'reconfiguring'
RUNNING = 'running'
STARTING = 'starting'
STOPPED = 'stopped'
STOPPING = 'stopping'
SUSPENDED = 'suspended'
TERMINATED = 'terminated'
UNKNOWN = 'unknown'
UPDATING = 'updating'
class libcloud.compute.base.NodeSize(id, name, ram, disk, bandwidth, price, driver, extra=None)[source]

Bases: libcloud.compute.base.UuidMixin

A Base NodeSize class to derive from.

NodeSizes are objects which are typically returned a driver’s list_sizes function. They contain a number of different parameters which define how big an image is.

The exact parameters available depends on the provider.

N.B. Where a parameter is “unlimited” (for example bandwidth in Amazon) this will be given as 0.

>>> from libcloud.compute.drivers.dummy import DummyNodeDriver
>>> driver = DummyNodeDriver(0)
>>> size = driver.list_sizes()[0]
>>> size.ram
128
>>> size.bandwidth
500
>>> size.price
4
Parameters:
  • id (str) – Size ID.
  • name (str) – Size name.
  • ram (int) – Amount of memory (in MB) provided by this size.
  • disk (int) – Amount of disk storage (in GB) provided by this image.
  • bandwidth (int) – Amount of bandiwdth included with this size.
  • price (float) – Price (in US dollars) of running this node for an hour.
  • driver (NodeDriver) – Driver this size belongs to.
  • extra (dict) – Optional provider specific attributes associated with this size.
class libcloud.compute.base.NodeImage(id, name, driver, extra=None)[source]

Bases: libcloud.compute.base.UuidMixin

An operating system image.

NodeImage objects are typically returned by the driver for the cloud provider in response to the list_images function

>>> from libcloud.compute.drivers.dummy import DummyNodeDriver
>>> driver = DummyNodeDriver(0)
>>> image = driver.list_images()[0]
>>> image.name
'Ubuntu 9.10'

Apart from name and id, there is no further standard information; other parameters are stored in a driver specific “extra” variable

When creating a node, a node image should be given as an argument to the create_node function to decide which OS image to use.

>>> node = driver.create_node(image=image)
Parameters:
  • id (str) – Image ID.
  • name (str) – Image name.
  • driver (NodeDriver) – Driver this image belongs to.
  • extra (dict) – Optional provided specific attributes associated with this image.
class libcloud.compute.base.NodeImageMember(id, image_id, state, driver, created=None, extra=None)[source]

Bases: libcloud.compute.base.UuidMixin

A member of an image. At some cloud providers there is a mechanism to share images. Once an image is shared with another account that user will be a ‘member’ of the image.

For example, see the image members schema in the OpenStack Image Service API v2 documentation. https://developer.openstack.org/ api-ref/image/v2/index.html#image-members-schema

NodeImageMember objects are typically returned by the driver for the cloud provider in response to the list_image_members method

Parameters:
  • id (str) – Image member ID.
  • id – The associated image ID.
  • state (NodeImageMemberState) – State of the NodeImageMember. If not provided, will default to UNKNOWN.
  • driver (NodeDriver) – Driver this image belongs to.
  • created (datetime.datetime) – A datetime object that represents when the image member was created
  • extra (dict) – Optional provided specific attributes associated with this image.
class libcloud.compute.base.NodeLocation(id, name, country, driver)[source]

Bases: object

A physical location where nodes can be.

>>> from libcloud.compute.drivers.dummy import DummyNodeDriver
>>> driver = DummyNodeDriver(0)
>>> location = driver.list_locations()[0]
>>> location.country
'US'
Parameters:
  • id (str) – Location ID.
  • name (str) – Location name.
  • country (str) – Location country.
  • driver (NodeDriver) – Driver this location belongs to.
class libcloud.compute.base.NodeAuthSSHKey(pubkey)[source]

Bases: object

An SSH key to be installed for authentication to a node.

This is the actual contents of the users ssh public key which will normally be installed as root’s public key on the node.

>>> pubkey = '...' # read from file
>>> from libcloud.compute.base import NodeAuthSSHKey
>>> k = NodeAuthSSHKey(pubkey)
>>> k
<NodeAuthSSHKey>
Parameters:pubkey (str) – Public key matetiral.
class libcloud.compute.base.NodeAuthPassword(password, generated=False)[source]

Bases: object

A password to be used for authentication to a node.

Parameters:password (str) – Password.
class libcloud.compute.base.NodeDriver(key, secret=None, secure=True, host=None, port=None, api_version=None, region=None, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: libcloud.common.base.BaseDriver

A base NodeDriver class to derive from

This class is always subclassed by a specific driver. For examples of base behavior of most functions (except deploy node) see the dummy driver.

Parameters:
  • key (str) – API key or username to be used (required)
  • secret (str) – Secret password to be used (required)
  • secure (bool) – Whether to use HTTPS or HTTP. Note: Some providers only support HTTPS, and it is on by default.
  • host (str) – Override hostname used for connections.
  • port (int) – Override port used for connections.
  • api_version (str) – Optional API version. Only used by drivers which support multiple API versions.
  • region (str) – Optional driver region. Only used by drivers which support multiple regions.
Return type:

None

NODE_STATE_MAP = {}
attach_volume(node, volume, device=None)[source]

Attaches volume to node.

Parameters:
  • node (Node) – Node to attach volume to.
  • volume (StorageVolume) – Volume to attach.
  • device (str) – Where the device is exposed, e.g. ‘/dev/sdb’
Rytpe:

bool

connectionCls

alias of ConnectionKey

copy_image(source_region, node_image, name, description=None)[source]

Copies an image from a source region to the current region.

Parameters:
  • source_region (str) – Region to copy the node from.
  • node_image (NodeImage:) – NodeImage to copy.
  • name (str) – name for new image.
  • description – description for new image.
Return type:

NodeImage:

Returns:

NodeImage instance on success.

create_image(node, name, description=None)[source]

Creates an image from a node object.

Parameters:
  • node (Node) – Node to run the task on.
  • name (description) – name for new image.
  • description – description for new image.
Return type:

NodeImage:

Returns:

NodeImage instance on success.

create_key_pair(name)[source]

Create a new key pair object.

Parameters:name (str) – Key pair name.
create_node(**kwargs)[source]

Create a new node instance. This instance will be started automatically.

Not all hosting API’s are created equal and to allow libcloud to support as many as possible there are some standard supported variations of create_node. These are declared using a features API. You can inspect driver.features['create_node'] to see what variation of the API you are dealing with:

ssh_key
You can inject a public key into a new node allows key based SSH authentication.
password
You can inject a password into a new node for SSH authentication. If no password is provided libcloud will generated a password. The password will be available as return_value.extra['password'].
generates_password
The hosting provider will generate a password. It will be returned to you via return_value.extra['password'].

Some drivers allow you to set how you will authenticate with the instance that is created. You can inject this initial authentication information via the auth parameter.

If a driver supports the ssh_key feature flag for created_node you can upload a public key into the new instance:

>>> from libcloud.compute.drivers.dummy import DummyNodeDriver
>>> driver = DummyNodeDriver(0)
>>> auth = NodeAuthSSHKey('pubkey data here')
>>> node = driver.create_node("test_node", auth=auth)

If a driver supports the password feature flag for create_node you can set a password:

>>> driver = DummyNodeDriver(0)
>>> auth = NodeAuthPassword('mysecretpassword')
>>> node = driver.create_node("test_node", auth=auth)

If a driver supports the password feature and you don’t provide the auth argument libcloud will assign a password:

>>> driver = DummyNodeDriver(0)
>>> node = driver.create_node("test_node")
>>> password = node.extra['password']

A password will also be returned in this way for drivers that declare the generates_password feature, though in that case the password is actually provided to the driver API by the hosting provider rather than generated by libcloud.

You can only pass a NodeAuthPassword or NodeAuthSSHKey to create_node via the auth parameter if has the corresponding feature flag.

Parameters:
  • name (str) – String with a name for this new node (required)
  • size (NodeSize) – The size of resources allocated to this node. (required)
  • image (NodeImage) – OS Image to boot on node. (required)
  • location (NodeLocation) – Which data center to create a node in. If empty, undefined behavior will be selected. (optional)
  • auth (NodeAuthSSHKey or NodeAuthPassword) – Initial authentication information for the node (optional)
Returns:

The newly created node.

Return type:

Node

create_volume(size, name, location=None, snapshot=None)[source]

Create a new volume.

Parameters:
  • size (int) – Size of volume in gigabytes (required)
  • name (str) – Name of the volume to be created
  • location (NodeLocation) – Which data center to create a volume in. If empty, undefined behavior will be selected. (optional)
  • snapshot (VolumeSnapshot) – Snapshot from which to create the new volume. (optional)
Returns:

The newly created volume.

Return type:

StorageVolume

create_volume_snapshot(volume, name=None)[source]

Creates a snapshot of the storage volume.

Parameters:
  • volume (VolumeSnapshot) – The StorageVolume to create a VolumeSnapshot from
  • name (str) – Name of created snapshot (optional)
Return type:

VolumeSnapshot

delete_image(node_image)[source]

Deletes a node image from a provider.

Parameters:node_image (NodeImage) – Node image object.
Returns:True if delete_image was successful, False otherwise.
Return type:bool
delete_key_pair(key_pair)[source]

Delete an existing key pair.

Parameters:key_pair (KeyPair) – Key pair object.
deploy_node(**kwargs)[source]

Create a new node, and start deployment.

In order to be able to SSH into a created node access credentials are required.

A user can pass either a NodeAuthPassword or NodeAuthSSHKey to the auth argument. If the create_node implementation supports that kind if credential (as declared in self.features['create_node']) then it is passed on to create_node. Otherwise it is not passed on to create_node and it is only used for authentication.

If the auth parameter is not supplied but the driver declares it supports generates_password then the password returned by create_node will be used to SSH into the server.

Finally, if the ssh_key_file is supplied that key will be used to SSH into the server.

This function may raise a DeploymentException, if a create_node call was successful, but there is a later error (like SSH failing or timing out). This exception includes a Node object which you may want to destroy if incomplete deployments are not desirable.

>>> from libcloud.compute.drivers.dummy import DummyNodeDriver
>>> from libcloud.compute.deployment import ScriptDeployment
>>> from libcloud.compute.deployment import MultiStepDeployment
>>> from libcloud.compute.base import NodeAuthSSHKey
>>> driver = DummyNodeDriver(0)
>>> key = NodeAuthSSHKey('...') # read from file
>>> script = ScriptDeployment("yum -y install emacs strace tcpdump")
>>> msd = MultiStepDeployment([key, script])
>>> def d():
...     try:
...         driver.deploy_node(deploy=msd)
...     except NotImplementedError:
...         print ("not implemented for dummy driver")
>>> d()
not implemented for dummy driver

Deploy node is typically not overridden in subclasses. The existing implementation should be able to handle most such.

Parameters:
  • deploy (Deployment) – Deployment to run once machine is online and available to SSH.
  • ssh_username (str) – Optional name of the account which is used when connecting to SSH server (default is root)
  • ssh_alternate_usernames (list) – Optional list of ssh usernames to try to connect with if using the default one fails
  • ssh_port (int) – Optional SSH server port (default is 22)
  • ssh_timeout (float) – Optional SSH connection timeout in seconds (default is 10)
  • auth (NodeAuthSSHKey or NodeAuthPassword) – Initial authentication information for the node (optional)
  • ssh_key (str or list of str) – A path (or paths) to an SSH private key with which to attempt to authenticate. (optional)
  • timeout (int) – How many seconds to wait before timing out. (default is 600)
  • max_tries (int) – How many times to retry if a deployment fails before giving up (default is 3)
  • ssh_interface (str) – The interface to wait for. Default is ‘public_ips’, other option is ‘private_ips’.
destroy_node(node)[source]

Destroy a node.

Depending upon the provider, this may destroy all data associated with the node, including backups.

Parameters:node (Node) – The node to be destroyed
Returns:True if the destroy was successful, False otherwise.
Return type:bool
destroy_volume(volume)[source]

Destroys a storage volume.

Parameters:volume (StorageVolume) – Volume to be destroyed
Return type:bool
destroy_volume_snapshot(snapshot)[source]

Destroys a snapshot.

Parameters:snapshot (VolumeSnapshot) – The snapshot to delete
Return type:bool
detach_volume(volume)[source]

Detaches a volume from a node.

Parameters:volume (StorageVolume) – Volume to be detached
Return type:bool
features = {'create_node': []}
List of available features for a driver.
get_image(image_id)[source]

Returns a single node image from a provider.

Parameters:image_id (str) – Node to run the task on.

:rtype NodeImage: :return: NodeImage instance on success.

get_key_pair(name)[source]

Retrieve a single key pair.

Parameters:name (str) – Name of the key pair to retrieve.
Return type:KeyPair
import_key_pair_from_file(name, key_file_path)[source]

Import a new public key from string.

Parameters:
  • name (str) – Key pair name.
  • key_file_path (str) – Path to the public key file.
Return type:

KeyPair object

import_key_pair_from_string(name, key_material)[source]

Import a new public key from string.

Parameters:
  • name (str) – Key pair name.
  • key_material (str) – Public key material.
Return type:

KeyPair object

list_images(location=None)[source]

List images on a provider.

Parameters:location (NodeLocation) – The location at which to list images.
Returns:list of node image objects.
Return type:list of NodeImage
list_key_pairs()[source]

List all the available key pair objects.

Return type:list of KeyPair objects
list_locations()[source]

List data centers for a provider

Returns:list of node location objects
Return type:list of NodeLocation
list_nodes()[source]

List all nodes.

Returns:list of node objects
Return type:list of Node
list_sizes(location=None)[source]

List sizes on a provider

Parameters:location (NodeLocation) – The location at which to list sizes
Returns:list of node size objects
Return type:list of NodeSize
list_volume_snapshots(volume)[source]

List snapshots for a storage volume.

Return type:list of VolumeSnapshot
list_volumes()[source]

List storage volumes.

Return type:list of StorageVolume
name = None
port = None
reboot_node(node)[source]

Reboot a node.

Parameters:node (Node) – The node to be rebooted
Returns:True if the reboot was successful, otherwise False
Return type:bool
type = None
wait_until_running(nodes, wait_period=3, timeout=600, ssh_interface='public_ips', force_ipv4=True, ex_list_nodes_kwargs=None)[source]

Block until the provided nodes are considered running.

Node is considered running when it’s state is “running” and when it has at least one IP address assigned.

Parameters:
  • nodes (list of Node) – List of nodes to wait for.
  • wait_period (int) – How many seconds to wait between each loop iteration. (default is 3)
  • timeout (int) – How many seconds to wait before giving up. (default is 600)
  • ssh_interface (str) – Which attribute on the node to use to obtain an IP address. Valid options: public_ips, private_ips. Default is public_ips.
  • force_ipv4 (bool) – Ignore IPv6 addresses (default is True).
  • ex_list_nodes_kwargs (dict) – Optional driver-specific keyword arguments which are passed to the list_nodes method.
Returns:

[(Node, ip_addresses)] list of tuple of Node instance and list of ip_address on success.

Return type:

list of tuple

class libcloud.compute.base.StorageVolume(id, name, size, driver, state=None, extra=None)[source]

Bases: libcloud.compute.base.UuidMixin

A base StorageVolume class to derive from.

Parameters:
  • id (str) – Storage volume ID.
  • name (str) – Storage volume name.
  • size (int) – Size of this volume (in GB).
  • driver (NodeDriver) – Driver this image belongs to.
  • state (StorageVolumeState) – Optional state of the StorageVolume. If not provided, will default to UNKNOWN.
  • extra (dict) – Optional provider specific attributes.
attach(node, device=None)[source]

Attach this volume to a node.

Parameters:
  • node (Node) – Node to attach volume to
  • device (str) – Where the device is exposed, e.g. ‘/dev/sdb (optional)
Returns:

True if attach was successful, False otherwise.

Return type:

bool

destroy()[source]

Destroy this storage volume.

Returns:True if destroy was successful, False otherwise.
Return type:bool
detach()[source]

Detach this volume from its node

Returns:True if detach was successful, False otherwise.
Return type:bool
list_snapshots()[source]
Return type:list of VolumeSnapshot
snapshot(name)[source]

Creates a snapshot of this volume.

Returns:Created snapshot.
Return type:VolumeSnapshot
class libcloud.compute.base.StorageVolumeState[source]

Bases: libcloud.compute.types.Type

Standard states of a StorageVolume

ATTACHING = 'attaching'
AVAILABLE = 'available'
BACKUP = 'backup'
CREATING = 'creating'
DELETED = 'deleted'
DELETING = 'deleting'
ERROR = 'error'
INUSE = 'inuse'
MIGRATING = 'migrating'
UNKNOWN = 'unknown'
UPDATING = 'updating'
class libcloud.compute.base.VolumeSnapshot(id, driver, size=None, extra=None, created=None, state=None, name=None)[source]

Bases: object

A base VolumeSnapshot class to derive from.

VolumeSnapshot constructor.

Parameters:
  • id (str) – Snapshot ID.
  • driver (NodeDriver) – The driver that represents a connection to the provider
  • size (int) – A snapshot size in GB.
  • extra (dict) – Provider depends parameters for snapshot.
  • created (datetime.datetime) – A datetime object that represents when the snapshot was created
  • state (str) – A string representing the state the snapshot is in. See libcloud.compute.types.StorageVolumeState.
  • name (str) – A string representing the name of the snapshot
destroy()[source]

Destroys this snapshot.

Return type:bool
libcloud.compute.base.is_private_subnet(ip)[source]

Utility function to check if an IP address is inside a private subnet.

Parameters:ip (str) – IP address to check
Returns:bool if the specified IP address is private.
libcloud.compute.base.is_valid_ip_address(address, family=2)[source]

Check if the provided address is valid IPv4 or IPv6 address.

Parameters:
  • address (str) – IPv4 or IPv6 address to check.
  • family (int) – Address family (socket.AF_INTET / socket.AF_INET6).
Returns:

bool True if the provided address is valid.

libcloud.compute.deployment module

Provides generic deployment steps for machines post boot.

class libcloud.compute.deployment.Deployment[source]

Bases: object

Base class for deployment tasks.

run(node, client)[source]

Runs this deployment task on node using the client provided.

Parameters:
  • node (Node) – Node to operate one
  • client (BaseSSHClient) – Connected SSH client to use.
Returns:

Node

class libcloud.compute.deployment.FileDeployment(source, target)[source]

Bases: libcloud.compute.deployment.Deployment

Installs a file on the server.

Parameters:
  • source (str) – Local path of file to be installed
  • target (str) – Path to install file on node
run(node, client)[source]

Upload the file, retaining permissions.

See also Deployment.run

class libcloud.compute.deployment.MultiStepDeployment(add=None)[source]

Bases: libcloud.compute.deployment.Deployment

Runs a chain of Deployment steps.

Parameters:add (list) – Deployment steps to add.
add(add)[source]

Add a deployment to this chain.

Parameters:add (Single Deployment or a list of Deployment) – Adds this deployment to the others already in this object.
run(node, client)[source]

Run each deployment that has been added.

See also Deployment.run

class libcloud.compute.deployment.SSHKeyDeployment(key)[source]

Bases: libcloud.compute.deployment.Deployment

Installs a public SSH Key onto a server.

Parameters:key (str or File object) – Contents of the public key write or a file object which can be read.
run(node, client)[source]

Installs SSH key into .ssh/authorized_keys

See also Deployment.run

class libcloud.compute.deployment.ScriptDeployment(script, args=None, name=None, delete=False)[source]

Bases: libcloud.compute.deployment.Deployment

Runs an arbitrary shell script on the server.

This step works by first writing the content of the shell script (script argument) in a *.sh file on a remote server and then running that file.

If you are running a non-shell script, make sure to put the appropriate shebang to the top of the script. You are also advised to do that even if you are running a plan shell script.

Parameters:
  • script (str) – Contents of the script to run.
  • args (list) – Optional command line arguments which get passed to the deployment script file.
  • name (str) – Name of the script to upload it as, if not specified, a random name will be chosen.
  • delete (bool) – Whether to delete the script on completion.
run(node, client)[source]

Uploads the shell script and then executes it.

See also Deployment.run

class libcloud.compute.deployment.ScriptFileDeployment(script_file, args=None, name=None, delete=False)[source]

Bases: libcloud.compute.deployment.ScriptDeployment

Runs an arbitrary shell script from a local file on the server. Same as ScriptDeployment, except that you can pass in a path to the file instead of the script content.

Parameters:
  • script_file (str) – Path to a file containing the script to run.
  • args (list) – Optional command line arguments which get passed to the deployment script file.
  • name (str) – Name of the script to upload it as, if not specified, a random name will be chosen.
  • delete (bool) – Whether to delete the script on completion.

libcloud.compute.deprecated module

Database of deprecated drivers

libcloud.compute.providers module

Provider related utilities

class libcloud.compute.providers.Provider[source]

Bases: libcloud.compute.types.Type

Defines for each of the supported providers

Non-Dummy drivers are sorted in alphabetical order. Please preserve this ordering when adding new drivers.

Variables:
  • DUMMY – Example provider
  • ABIQUO – Abiquo driver
  • ALIYUN_ECS – Aliyun ECS driver.
  • AURORACOMPUTE – Aurora Compute driver.
  • AZURE – Azure (classic) driver.
  • AZURE_ARM – Azure Resource Manager (modern) driver.
  • BLUEBOX – Bluebox
  • CLOUDSIGMA – CloudSigma
  • CLOUDSCALE – cloudscale.ch
  • CLOUDSTACK – CloudStack
  • DIMENSIONDATA – Dimension Data Cloud
  • EC2 – Amazon AWS.
  • ECP – Enomaly
  • ELASTICHOSTS – ElasticHosts.com
  • EXOSCALE – Exoscale driver.
  • GCE – Google Compute Engine
  • GOGRID – GoGrid
  • GRIDSPOT – Gridspot driver
  • IBM – IBM Developer Cloud
  • IKOULA – Ikoula driver.
  • JOYENT – Joyent driver
  • KTUCLOUD – kt ucloud driver
  • LIBVIRT – Libvirt driver
  • LINODE – Linode.com
  • NEPHOSCALE – NephoScale driver
  • NIMBUS – Nimbus
  • NINEFOLD – Ninefold
  • OPENNEBULA – OpenNebula.org
  • OPSOURCE – Opsource Cloud
  • OUTSCALE_INC – Outscale INC driver.
  • OUTSCALE_SAS – Outscale SAS driver.
  • PROFIT_BRICKS – ProfitBricks driver.
  • RACKSPACE – Rackspace next-gen OpenStack based Cloud Servers
  • RACKSPACE_FIRST_GEN – Rackspace First Gen Cloud Servers
  • RIMUHOSTING – RimuHosting.com
  • TERREMARK – Terremark
  • UPCLOUD – UpCloud
  • VCL – VCL driver
  • VCLOUD – vmware vCloud
  • VPSNET – VPS.net
  • VULTR – vultr driver.
ABIQUO = 'abiquo'
ALIYUN_ECS = 'aliyun_ecs'
AURORACOMPUTE = 'aurora_compute'
AZURE = 'azure'
AZURE_ARM = 'azure_arm'
BLUEBOX = 'bluebox'
BRIGHTBOX = 'brightbox'
BSNL = 'bsnl'
CISCOCCS = 'ciscoccs'
CLOUDFRAMES = 'cloudframes'
CLOUDSCALE = 'cloudscale'
CLOUDSIGMA = 'cloudsigma'
CLOUDSIGMA_US = 'cloudsigma_us'
CLOUDSTACK = 'cloudstack'
CLOUDWATT = 'cloudwatt'
DIGITAL_OCEAN = 'digitalocean'
DIMENSIONDATA = 'dimensiondata'
DUMMY = 'dummy'
EC2 = 'ec2'
EC2_AP_NORTHEAST = 'ec2_ap_northeast'
EC2_AP_NORTHEAST1 = 'ec2_ap_northeast_1'
EC2_AP_NORTHEAST2 = 'ec2_ap_northeast_2'
EC2_AP_SOUTHEAST = 'ec2_ap_southeast'
EC2_AP_SOUTHEAST2 = 'ec2_ap_southeast_2'
EC2_CA_CENTRAL1 = 'ec2_ca_central_1'
EC2_EU = 'ec2_eu_west'
EC2_EU_WEST = 'ec2_eu_west'
EC2_EU_WEST2 = 'ec2_eu_west_london'
EC2_SA_EAST = 'ec2_sa_east'
EC2_US_EAST = 'ec2_us_east'
EC2_US_EAST_OHIO = 'ec2_us_east_ohio'
EC2_US_WEST = 'ec2_us_west'
EC2_US_WEST_OREGON = 'ec2_us_west_oregon'
ECP = 'ecp'
ELASTICHOSTS = 'elastichosts'
ELASTICHOSTS_AU1 = 'elastichosts_au1'
ELASTICHOSTS_CA1 = 'elastichosts_ca1'
ELASTICHOSTS_CN1 = 'elastichosts_cn1'
ELASTICHOSTS_UK1 = 'elastichosts_uk1'
ELASTICHOSTS_UK2 = 'elastichosts_uk2'
ELASTICHOSTS_US1 = 'elastichosts_us1'
ELASTICHOSTS_US2 = 'elastichosts_us2'
ELASTICHOSTS_US3 = 'elastichosts_us3'
EUCALYPTUS = 'eucalyptus'
EXOSCALE = 'exoscale'
GANDI = 'gandi'
GCE = 'gce'
GOGRID = 'gogrid'
GRIDSPOT = 'gridspot'
HOSTVIRTUAL = 'hostvirtual'
HPCLOUD = 'hpcloud'
IBM = 'ibm'
IKOULA = 'ikoula'
INDOSAT = 'indosat'
INTERNETSOLUTIONS = 'internetsolutions'
JOYENT = 'joyent'
KILI = 'kili'
KTUCLOUD = 'ktucloud'
LIBVIRT = 'libvirt'
LINODE = 'linode'
MEDONE = 'medone'
NEPHOSCALE = 'nephoscale'
NIMBUS = 'nimbus'
NINEFOLD = 'ninefold'
NTTA = 'ntta'
ONAPP = 'onapp'
ONEANDONE = 'oneandone'
OPENNEBULA = 'opennebula'
OPENSTACK = 'openstack'
OPSOURCE = 'opsource'
OUTSCALE_INC = 'outscale_inc'
OUTSCALE_SAS = 'outscale_sas'
OVH = 'ovh'
PACKET = 'packet'
PROFIT_BRICKS = 'profitbricks'
RACKSPACE = 'rackspace'
RACKSPACE_FIRST_GEN = 'rackspace_first_gen'
RACKSPACE_NOVA_BETA = 'rackspace_nova_beta'
RACKSPACE_NOVA_DFW = 'rackspace_nova_dfw'
RACKSPACE_NOVA_LON = 'rackspace_nova_lon'
RACKSPACE_NOVA_ORD = 'rackspace_nova_ord'
RACKSPACE_UK = 'rackspace_uk'
RIMUHOSTING = 'rimuhosting'
RUNABOVE = 'runabove'
SERVERLOVE = 'serverlove'
SKALICLOUD = 'skalicloud'
SOFTLAYER = 'softlayer'
TERREMARK = 'terremark'
UPCLOUD = 'upcloud'
VCL = 'vcl'
VCLOUD = 'vcloud'
VOXEL = 'voxel'
VPSNET = 'vpsnet'
VSPHERE = 'vsphere'
VULTR = 'vultr'
libcloud.compute.providers.get_driver(provider)[source]

libcloud.compute.ssh module

Wraps multiple ways to communicate over SSH.

class libcloud.compute.ssh.BaseSSHClient(hostname, port=22, username='root', password=None, key=None, key_files=None, timeout=None)[source]

Bases: object

Base class representing a connection over SSH/SCP to a remote node.

Parameters:
  • hostname (str) – Hostname or IP address to connect to.
  • port (int) – TCP port to communicate on, defaults to 22.
  • username (str) – Username to use, defaults to root.
  • password (str) – Password to authenticate with or a password used to unlock a private key if a password protected key is used.
  • key – Deprecated in favor of key_files argument.
  • key_files (str or list) – A list of paths to the private key files to use.
close()[source]

Shutdown connection to the remote node.

Returns:True if the connection has been successfully closed, False otherwise.
Return type:bool
connect()[source]

Connect to the remote node over SSH.

Returns:True if the connection has been successfully established, False otherwise.
Return type:bool
delete(path)[source]

Delete/Unlink a file on the remote node.

Parameters:path (str) – File path on the remote node.
Returns:True if the file has been successfully deleted, False otherwise.
Return type:bool
put(path, contents=None, chmod=None, mode='w')[source]

Upload a file to the remote node.

Parameters:
  • path (str) – File path on the remote node.
  • contents (str) – File Contents.
  • chmod (int) – chmod file to this after creation.
  • mode (str) – Mode in which the file is opened.
Returns:

Full path to the location where a file has been saved.

Return type:

str

run(cmd)[source]

Run a command on a remote node.

Parameters:cmd (str) – Command to run.

:return list of [stdout, stderr, exit_status]

class libcloud.compute.ssh.ParamikoSSHClient(hostname, port=22, username='root', password=None, key=None, key_files=None, key_material=None, timeout=None)[source]

Bases: libcloud.compute.ssh.BaseSSHClient

A SSH Client powered by Paramiko.

Authentication is always attempted in the following order:

  • The key passed in (if key is provided)
  • Any key we can find through an SSH agent (only if no password and key is provided)
  • Any “id_rsa” or “id_dsa” key discoverable in ~/.ssh/ (only if no password and key is provided)
  • Plain username/password auth, if a password was given (if password is provided)
CHUNK_SIZE = 4096
SLEEP_DELAY = 0.2
close()[source]
connect()[source]
delete(path)[source]
put(path, contents=None, chmod=None, mode='w')[source]
run(cmd, timeout=None)[source]

Note: This function is based on paramiko’s exec_command() method.

Parameters:timeout (float) – How long to wait (in seconds) for the command to finish (optional).
class libcloud.compute.ssh.ShellOutSSHClient(hostname, port=22, username='root', password=None, key=None, key_files=None, timeout=None)[source]

Bases: libcloud.compute.ssh.BaseSSHClient

This client shells out to “ssh” binary to run commands on the remote server.

Note: This client should not be used in production.

close()[source]
connect()[source]

This client doesn’t support persistent connections establish a new connection every time “run” method is called.

delete(path)[source]
put(path, contents=None, chmod=None, mode='w')[source]
run(cmd)[source]
exception libcloud.compute.ssh.SSHCommandTimeoutError(cmd, timeout)[source]

Bases: exceptions.Exception

Exception which is raised when an SSH command times out.

libcloud.compute.types module

Base types used by other parts of libcloud

class libcloud.compute.types.Provider[source]

Bases: libcloud.compute.types.Type

Defines for each of the supported providers

Non-Dummy drivers are sorted in alphabetical order. Please preserve this ordering when adding new drivers.

Variables:
  • DUMMY – Example provider
  • ABIQUO – Abiquo driver
  • ALIYUN_ECS – Aliyun ECS driver.
  • AURORACOMPUTE – Aurora Compute driver.
  • AZURE – Azure (classic) driver.
  • AZURE_ARM – Azure Resource Manager (modern) driver.
  • BLUEBOX – Bluebox
  • CLOUDSIGMA – CloudSigma
  • CLOUDSCALE – cloudscale.ch
  • CLOUDSTACK – CloudStack
  • DIMENSIONDATA – Dimension Data Cloud
  • EC2 – Amazon AWS.
  • ECP – Enomaly
  • ELASTICHOSTS – ElasticHosts.com
  • EXOSCALE – Exoscale driver.
  • GCE – Google Compute Engine
  • GOGRID – GoGrid
  • GRIDSPOT – Gridspot driver
  • IBM – IBM Developer Cloud
  • IKOULA – Ikoula driver.
  • JOYENT – Joyent driver
  • KTUCLOUD – kt ucloud driver
  • LIBVIRT – Libvirt driver
  • LINODE – Linode.com
  • NEPHOSCALE – NephoScale driver
  • NIMBUS – Nimbus
  • NINEFOLD – Ninefold
  • OPENNEBULA – OpenNebula.org
  • OPSOURCE – Opsource Cloud
  • OUTSCALE_INC – Outscale INC driver.
  • OUTSCALE_SAS – Outscale SAS driver.
  • PROFIT_BRICKS – ProfitBricks driver.
  • RACKSPACE – Rackspace next-gen OpenStack based Cloud Servers
  • RACKSPACE_FIRST_GEN – Rackspace First Gen Cloud Servers
  • RIMUHOSTING – RimuHosting.com
  • TERREMARK – Terremark
  • UPCLOUD – UpCloud
  • VCL – VCL driver
  • VCLOUD – vmware vCloud
  • VPSNET – VPS.net
  • VULTR – vultr driver.
ABIQUO = 'abiquo'
ALIYUN_ECS = 'aliyun_ecs'
AURORACOMPUTE = 'aurora_compute'
AZURE = 'azure'
AZURE_ARM = 'azure_arm'
BLUEBOX = 'bluebox'
BRIGHTBOX = 'brightbox'
BSNL = 'bsnl'
CISCOCCS = 'ciscoccs'
CLOUDFRAMES = 'cloudframes'
CLOUDSCALE = 'cloudscale'
CLOUDSIGMA = 'cloudsigma'
CLOUDSIGMA_US = 'cloudsigma_us'
CLOUDSTACK = 'cloudstack'
CLOUDWATT = 'cloudwatt'
DIGITAL_OCEAN = 'digitalocean'
DIMENSIONDATA = 'dimensiondata'
DUMMY = 'dummy'
EC2 = 'ec2'
EC2_AP_NORTHEAST = 'ec2_ap_northeast'
EC2_AP_NORTHEAST1 = 'ec2_ap_northeast_1'
EC2_AP_NORTHEAST2 = 'ec2_ap_northeast_2'
EC2_AP_SOUTHEAST = 'ec2_ap_southeast'
EC2_AP_SOUTHEAST2 = 'ec2_ap_southeast_2'
EC2_CA_CENTRAL1 = 'ec2_ca_central_1'
EC2_EU = 'ec2_eu_west'
EC2_EU_WEST = 'ec2_eu_west'
EC2_EU_WEST2 = 'ec2_eu_west_london'
EC2_SA_EAST = 'ec2_sa_east'
EC2_US_EAST = 'ec2_us_east'
EC2_US_EAST_OHIO = 'ec2_us_east_ohio'
EC2_US_WEST = 'ec2_us_west'
EC2_US_WEST_OREGON = 'ec2_us_west_oregon'
ECP = 'ecp'
ELASTICHOSTS = 'elastichosts'
ELASTICHOSTS_AU1 = 'elastichosts_au1'
ELASTICHOSTS_CA1 = 'elastichosts_ca1'
ELASTICHOSTS_CN1 = 'elastichosts_cn1'
ELASTICHOSTS_UK1 = 'elastichosts_uk1'
ELASTICHOSTS_UK2 = 'elastichosts_uk2'
ELASTICHOSTS_US1 = 'elastichosts_us1'
ELASTICHOSTS_US2 = 'elastichosts_us2'
ELASTICHOSTS_US3 = 'elastichosts_us3'
EUCALYPTUS = 'eucalyptus'
EXOSCALE = 'exoscale'
GANDI = 'gandi'
GCE = 'gce'
GOGRID = 'gogrid'
GRIDSPOT = 'gridspot'
HOSTVIRTUAL = 'hostvirtual'
HPCLOUD = 'hpcloud'
IBM = 'ibm'
IKOULA = 'ikoula'
INDOSAT = 'indosat'
INTERNETSOLUTIONS = 'internetsolutions'
JOYENT = 'joyent'
KILI = 'kili'
KTUCLOUD = 'ktucloud'
LIBVIRT = 'libvirt'
LINODE = 'linode'
MEDONE = 'medone'
NEPHOSCALE = 'nephoscale'
NIMBUS = 'nimbus'
NINEFOLD = 'ninefold'
NTTA = 'ntta'
ONAPP = 'onapp'
ONEANDONE = 'oneandone'
OPENNEBULA = 'opennebula'
OPENSTACK = 'openstack'
OPSOURCE = 'opsource'
OUTSCALE_INC = 'outscale_inc'
OUTSCALE_SAS = 'outscale_sas'
OVH = 'ovh'
PACKET = 'packet'
PROFIT_BRICKS = 'profitbricks'
RACKSPACE = 'rackspace'
RACKSPACE_FIRST_GEN = 'rackspace_first_gen'
RACKSPACE_NOVA_BETA = 'rackspace_nova_beta'
RACKSPACE_NOVA_DFW = 'rackspace_nova_dfw'
RACKSPACE_NOVA_LON = 'rackspace_nova_lon'
RACKSPACE_NOVA_ORD = 'rackspace_nova_ord'
RACKSPACE_UK = 'rackspace_uk'
RIMUHOSTING = 'rimuhosting'
RUNABOVE = 'runabove'
SERVERLOVE = 'serverlove'
SKALICLOUD = 'skalicloud'
SOFTLAYER = 'softlayer'
TERREMARK = 'terremark'
UPCLOUD = 'upcloud'
VCL = 'vcl'
VCLOUD = 'vcloud'
VOXEL = 'voxel'
VPSNET = 'vpsnet'
VSPHERE = 'vsphere'
VULTR = 'vultr'
class libcloud.compute.types.NodeState[source]

Bases: libcloud.compute.types.Type

Standard states for a node

Variables:
  • RUNNING – Node is running.
  • STARTING – Node is starting up.
  • REBOOTING – Node is rebooting.
  • TERMINATED – Node is terminated. This node can’t be started later on.
  • STOPPING – Node is currently trying to stop.
  • STOPPED – Node is stopped. This node can be started later on.
  • PENDING – Node is pending.
  • SUSPENDED – Node is suspended.
  • ERROR – Node is an error state. Usually no operations can be performed on the node once it ends up in the error state.
  • PAUSED – Node is paused.
  • RECONFIGURING – Node is being reconfigured.
  • UNKNOWN – Node state is unknown.
ERROR = 'error'
MIGRATING = 'migrating'
NORMAL = 'normal'
PAUSED = 'paused'
PENDING = 'pending'
REBOOTING = 'rebooting'
RECONFIGURING = 'reconfiguring'
RUNNING = 'running'
STARTING = 'starting'
STOPPED = 'stopped'
STOPPING = 'stopping'
SUSPENDED = 'suspended'
TERMINATED = 'terminated'
UNKNOWN = 'unknown'
UPDATING = 'updating'
exception libcloud.compute.types.DeploymentError(node, original_exception=None, driver=None)[source]

Bases: libcloud.common.types.LibcloudError

Exception used when a Deployment Task failed.

Variables:nodeNode on which this exception happened, you might want to call Node.destroy()
libcloud.compute.types.DeploymentException

alias of DeploymentError

exception libcloud.compute.types.LibcloudError(value, driver=None)[source]

Bases: exceptions.Exception

The base class for other libcloud exceptions

exception libcloud.compute.types.MalformedResponseError(value, body=None, driver=None)[source]

Bases: libcloud.common.types.LibcloudError

Exception for the cases when a provider returns a malformed response, e.g. you request JSON and provider returns ‘<h3>something</h3>’ due to some error on their side.

exception libcloud.compute.types.InvalidCredsError(value='Invalid credentials with the provider', driver=None)[source]

Bases: libcloud.common.types.ProviderError

Exception used when invalid credentials are used on a provider.

libcloud.compute.types.InvalidCredsException

alias of InvalidCredsError

Module contents

Module for working with Cloud Servers