SSL Certificate Validation¶
When establishing a secure connection to a cloud provider endpoint,
Libcloud verifies server SSL certificate. By default, Libcloud searches
paths listed in
libcloud.security.CA_CERTS_PATH variable for the CA
CA_CERTS_PATH contains common paths to CA bundle installations on the
opensslpackage on CentOS / Fedora
ca-certificatespackage on Debian / Ubuntu / Arch / Gentoo
ca_root_nssport on FreeBSD
curl-ca-bundleport on Mac OS X
If no valid CA certificate files are found, you will see an error message similar to the one below:
No CA Certificates were found in CA_CERTS_PATH.
Acquiring CA Certificates¶
If the above packages are unavailable to you, and you don’t wish to roll your own, the makers of cURL provides an excellent resource, generated from Mozilla: http://curl.haxx.se/docs/caextract.html.
Using a custom CA certificate¶
If you want to use a custom CA certificate file for validating the server certificate, you can do that using two different approaches:
SSL_CERT_FILEenvironment variable to point to your CA file
SSL_CERT_FILE=/home/user/path-to-your-ca-file.crt python my_script.py
libcloud.security.CA_CERTS_PATHvariable in your script to point to your CA file
import libcloud.security libcloud.security.CA_CERTS_PATH = ['/home/user/path-to-your-ca-file.crt'] # Instantiate and work with the driver here...
Adding additional CA certificate to the path¶
If you want to add an additional CA certificate to the
can do this by appending a path to your CA file to the
import libcloud.security libcloud.security.CA_CERTS_PATH.append('/home/user/path-to-your-ca-file.crt') # Instantiate and work with the driver here...
Disabling SSL certificate validation¶
Disabling SSL certificate validations makes you vulnerable to MITM attacks so you are strongly discouraged from doing that. You should only disable it if you are aware of the consequences and you know what you are doing.
To disable SSL certificate validation, set
libcloud.security.VERIFY_SSL_CERT variable to
False at the top of your
script, before instantiating a driver and interacting with other Libcloud code.
import libcloud.security libcloud.security.VERIFY_SSL_CERT = False # Instantiate and work with the driver here...