Source code for

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# this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
# The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
# (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
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# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

import base64
import hmac
import time
import sys

from hashlib import sha1

    from lxml.etree import Element, SubElement
except ImportError:
    from xml.etree.ElementTree import Element, SubElement

from libcloud.utils.py3 import httplib
from libcloud.utils.py3 import urlquote
from libcloud.utils.py3 import urlencode
from libcloud.utils.py3 import b
from libcloud.utils.py3 import tostring

from libcloud.utils.xml import fixxpath, findtext
from libcloud.utils.files import read_in_chunks
from libcloud.common.types import InvalidCredsError, LibcloudError
from libcloud.common.base import ConnectionUserAndKey, RawResponse
from import AWSBaseResponse, AWSDriver, AWSTokenConnection

from import Object, Container, StorageDriver
from import ContainerError
from import ContainerIsNotEmptyError
from import InvalidContainerNameError
from import ContainerDoesNotExistError
from import ObjectDoesNotExistError
from import ObjectHashMismatchError

# How long before the token expires


API_VERSION = '2006-03-01'

# AWS multi-part chunks must be minimum 5MB
CHUNK_SIZE = 5 * 1024 * 1024

# Desired number of items in each response inside a paginated request in
# ex_iterate_multipart_uploads.

[docs]class S3Response(AWSBaseResponse): namespace = None valid_response_codes = [httplib.NOT_FOUND, httplib.CONFLICT, httplib.BAD_REQUEST]
[docs] def success(self): i = int(self.status) return i >= 200 and i <= 299 or i in self.valid_response_codes
[docs] def parse_error(self): if self.status in [httplib.UNAUTHORIZED, httplib.FORBIDDEN]: raise InvalidCredsError(self.body) elif self.status == httplib.MOVED_PERMANENTLY: raise LibcloudError('This bucket is located in a different ' + 'region. Please use the correct driver.', driver=S3StorageDriver) raise LibcloudError('Unknown error. Status code: %d' % (self.status), driver=S3StorageDriver)
[docs]class S3RawResponse(S3Response, RawResponse): pass
[docs]class BaseS3Connection(ConnectionUserAndKey): """ Represents a single connection to the S3 Endpoint """ host = '' responseCls = S3Response rawResponseCls = S3RawResponse @staticmethod
[docs] def get_auth_signature(method, headers, params, expires, secret_key, path, vendor_prefix): """ Signature = URL-Encode( Base64( HMAC-SHA1( YourSecretAccessKeyID, UTF-8-Encoding-Of( StringToSign ) ) ) ); StringToSign = HTTP-VERB + "\n" + Content-MD5 + "\n" + Content-Type + "\n" + Expires + "\n" + CanonicalizedVendorHeaders + CanonicalizedResource; """ special_headers = {'content-md5': '', 'content-type': '', 'date': ''} vendor_headers = {} for key, value in list(headers.items()): key_lower = key.lower() if key_lower in special_headers: special_headers[key_lower] = value.strip() elif key_lower.startswith(vendor_prefix): vendor_headers[key_lower] = value.strip() if expires: special_headers['date'] = str(expires) buf = [method] for _, value in sorted(special_headers.items()): buf.append(value) string_to_sign = '\n'.join(buf) buf = [] for key, value in sorted(vendor_headers.items()): buf.append('%s:%s' % (key, value)) header_string = '\n'.join(buf) values_to_sign = [] for value in [string_to_sign, header_string, path]: if value: values_to_sign.append(value) string_to_sign = '\n'.join(values_to_sign) b64_hmac = base64.b64encode(, b(string_to_sign), digestmod=sha1).digest() ) return b64_hmac.decode('utf-8')
[docs] def add_default_params(self, params): expires = str(int(time.time()) + EXPIRATION_SECONDS) params['AWSAccessKeyId'] = self.user_id params['Expires'] = expires return params
[docs] def pre_connect_hook(self, params, headers): params['Signature'] = self.get_auth_signature( method=self.method, headers=headers, params=params, expires=params['Expires'], secret_key=self.key, path=self.action, vendor_prefix=self.driver.http_vendor_prefix) return params, headers
[docs]class S3Connection(AWSTokenConnection, BaseS3Connection): """ Represents a single connection to the S3 endpoint, with AWS-specific features. """ pass
[docs]class S3MultipartUpload(object): """ Class representing an amazon s3 multipart upload """ def __init__(self, key, id, created_at, initiator, owner): """ Class representing an amazon s3 multipart upload :param key: The object/key that was being uploaded :type key: ``str`` :param id: The upload id assigned by amazon :type id: ``str`` :param created_at: The date/time at which the upload was started :type created_at: ``str`` :param initiator: The AWS owner/IAM user who initiated this :type initiator: ``str`` :param owner: The AWS owner/IAM who will own this object :type owner: ``str`` """ self.key = key = id self.created_at = created_at self.initiator = initiator self.owner = owner def __repr__(self): return ('<S3MultipartUpload: key=%s>' % (self.key))
[docs]class BaseS3StorageDriver(StorageDriver): name = 'Amazon S3 (standard)' website = '' connectionCls = BaseS3Connection hash_type = 'md5' supports_chunked_encoding = False supports_s3_multipart_upload = True ex_location_name = '' namespace = NAMESPACE http_vendor_prefix = 'x-amz'
[docs] def iterate_containers(self): response = self.connection.request('/') if response.status == httplib.OK: containers = self._to_containers(obj=response.object, xpath='Buckets/Bucket') return containers raise LibcloudError('Unexpected status code: %s' % (response.status), driver=self)
[docs] def list_container_objects(self, container, ex_prefix=None): """ Return a list of objects for the given container. :param container: Container instance. :type container: :class:`Container` :param ex_prefix: Only return objects starting with ex_prefix :type ex_prefix: ``str`` :return: A list of Object instances. :rtype: ``list`` of :class:`Object` """ return list(self.iterate_container_objects(container, ex_prefix=ex_prefix))
[docs] def iterate_container_objects(self, container, ex_prefix=None): """ Return a generator of objects for the given container. :param container: Container instance :type container: :class:`Container` :param ex_prefix: Only return objects starting with ex_prefix :type ex_prefix: ``str`` :return: A generator of Object instances. :rtype: ``generator`` of :class:`Object` """ params = {} if ex_prefix: params['prefix'] = ex_prefix last_key = None exhausted = False container_path = self._get_container_path(container) while not exhausted: if last_key: params['marker'] = last_key response = self.connection.request(container_path, params=params) if response.status != httplib.OK: raise LibcloudError('Unexpected status code: %s' % (response.status), driver=self) objects = self._to_objs(obj=response.object, xpath='Contents', container=container) is_truncated = response.object.findtext(fixxpath( xpath='IsTruncated', namespace=self.namespace)).lower() exhausted = (is_truncated == 'false') last_key = None for obj in objects: last_key = yield obj
[docs] def get_container(self, container_name): try: response = self.connection.request('/%s' % container_name, method='HEAD') if response.status == httplib.NOT_FOUND: raise ContainerDoesNotExistError(value=None, driver=self, container_name=container_name) except InvalidCredsError: # This just means the user doesn't have IAM permissions to do a # HEAD request but other requests might work. pass return Container(name=container_name, extra=None, driver=self)
[docs] def get_object(self, container_name, object_name): container = self.get_container(container_name=container_name) object_path = self._get_object_path(container, object_name) response = self.connection.request(object_path, method='HEAD') if response.status == httplib.OK: obj = self._headers_to_object(object_name=object_name, container=container, headers=response.headers) return obj raise ObjectDoesNotExistError(value=None, driver=self, object_name=object_name)
def _get_container_path(self, container): """ Return a container path :param container: Container instance :type container: :class:`Container` :return: A path for this container. :rtype: ``str`` """ return '/%s' % ( def _get_object_path(self, container, object_name): """ Return an object's CDN path. :param container: Container instance :type container: :class:`Container` :param object_name: Object name :type object_name: :class:`str` :return: A path for this object. :rtype: ``str`` """ container_url = self._get_container_path(container) object_name_cleaned = self._clean_object_name(object_name) object_path = '%s/%s' % (container_url, object_name_cleaned) return object_path
[docs] def create_container(self, container_name): if self.ex_location_name: root = Element('CreateBucketConfiguration') child = SubElement(root, 'LocationConstraint') child.text = self.ex_location_name data = tostring(root) else: data = '' response = self.connection.request('/%s' % (container_name), data=data, method='PUT') if response.status == httplib.OK: container = Container(name=container_name, extra=None, driver=self) return container elif response.status == httplib.CONFLICT: raise InvalidContainerNameError( value='Container with this name already exists. The name must ' 'be unique among all the containers in the system', container_name=container_name, driver=self) elif response.status == httplib.BAD_REQUEST: raise ContainerError( value='Bad request when creating container: %s' % response.body, container_name=container_name, driver=self) raise LibcloudError('Unexpected status code: %s' % (response.status), driver=self)
[docs] def delete_container(self, container):
# Note: All the objects in the container must be deleted first response = self.connection.request('/%s' % (, method='DELETE') if response.status == httplib.NO_CONTENT: return True elif response.status == httplib.CONFLICT: raise ContainerIsNotEmptyError( value='Container must be empty before it can be deleted.',, driver=self) elif response.status == httplib.NOT_FOUND: raise ContainerDoesNotExistError(value=None, driver=self, return False
[docs] def download_object(self, obj, destination_path, overwrite_existing=False, delete_on_failure=True): obj_path = self._get_object_path(obj.container, response = self.connection.request(obj_path, method='GET', raw=True) return self._get_object(obj=obj, callback=self._save_object, response=response, callback_kwargs={ 'obj': obj, 'response': response.response, 'destination_path': destination_path, 'overwrite_existing': overwrite_existing, 'delete_on_failure': delete_on_failure}, success_status_code=httplib.OK)
[docs] def download_object_as_stream(self, obj, chunk_size=None): obj_path = self._get_object_path(obj.container, response = self.connection.request(obj_path, method='GET', raw=True) return self._get_object(obj=obj, callback=read_in_chunks, response=response, callback_kwargs={'iterator': response.response, 'chunk_size': chunk_size}, success_status_code=httplib.OK)
[docs] def upload_object(self, file_path, container, object_name, extra=None, verify_hash=True, ex_storage_class=None): """ @inherits: :class:`StorageDriver.upload_object` :param ex_storage_class: Storage class :type ex_storage_class: ``str`` """ upload_func = self._upload_file upload_func_kwargs = {'file_path': file_path} return self._put_object(container=container, object_name=object_name, upload_func=upload_func, upload_func_kwargs=upload_func_kwargs, extra=extra, file_path=file_path, verify_hash=verify_hash, storage_class=ex_storage_class)
def _upload_multipart(self, response, data, iterator, container, object_name, calculate_hash=True): """ Callback invoked for uploading data to S3 using Amazon's multipart upload mechanism :param response: Response object from the initial POST request :type response: :class:`S3RawResponse` :param data: Any data from the initial POST request :type data: ``str`` :param iterator: The generator for fetching the upload data :type iterator: ``generator`` :param container: The container owning the object to which data is being uploaded :type container: :class:`Container` :param object_name: The name of the object to which we are uploading :type object_name: ``str`` :keyword calculate_hash: Indicates if we must calculate the data hash :type calculate_hash: ``bool`` :return: A tuple of (status, checksum, bytes transferred) :rtype: ``tuple`` """ object_path = self._get_object_path(container, object_name) # Get the upload id from the response xml response.body = body = response.parse_body() upload_id = body.find(fixxpath(xpath='UploadId', namespace=self.namespace)).text try: # Upload the data through the iterator result = self._upload_from_iterator(iterator, object_path, upload_id, calculate_hash) (chunks, data_hash, bytes_transferred) = result # Commit the chunk info and complete the upload etag = self._commit_multipart(object_path, upload_id, chunks) except Exception: exc = sys.exc_info()[1] # Amazon provides a mechanism for aborting an upload. self._abort_multipart(object_path, upload_id) raise exc # Modify the response header of the first request. This is used # by other functions once the callback is done response.headers['etag'] = etag return (True, data_hash, bytes_transferred) def _upload_from_iterator(self, iterator, object_path, upload_id, calculate_hash=True): """ Uploads data from an interator in fixed sized chunks to S3 :param iterator: The generator for fetching the upload data :type iterator: ``generator`` :param object_path: The path of the object to which we are uploading :type object_name: ``str`` :param upload_id: The upload id allocated for this multipart upload :type upload_id: ``str`` :keyword calculate_hash: Indicates if we must calculate the data hash :type calculate_hash: ``bool`` :return: A tuple of (chunk info, checksum, bytes transferred) :rtype: ``tuple`` """ data_hash = None if calculate_hash: data_hash = self._get_hash_function() bytes_transferred = 0 count = 1 chunks = [] params = {'uploadId': upload_id} # Read the input data in chunk sizes suitable for AWS for data in read_in_chunks(iterator, chunk_size=CHUNK_SIZE, fill_size=True, yield_empty=True): bytes_transferred += len(data) if calculate_hash: data_hash.update(data) chunk_hash = self._get_hash_function() chunk_hash.update(data) chunk_hash = base64.b64encode(chunk_hash.digest()).decode('utf-8') # This provides an extra level of data check and is recommended # by amazon headers = {'Content-MD5': chunk_hash} params['partNumber'] = count request_path = '?'.join((object_path, urlencode(params))) resp = self.connection.request(request_path, method='PUT', data=data, headers=headers) if resp.status != httplib.OK: raise LibcloudError('Error uploading chunk', driver=self) server_hash = resp.headers['etag'] # Keep this data for a later commit chunks.append((count, server_hash)) count += 1 if calculate_hash: data_hash = data_hash.hexdigest() return (chunks, data_hash, bytes_transferred) def _commit_multipart(self, object_path, upload_id, chunks): """ Makes a final commit of the data. :param object_path: Server side object path. :type object_path: ``str`` :param upload_id: ID of the multipart upload. :type upload_id: ``str`` :param upload_id: A list of (chunk_number, chunk_hash) tuples. :type upload_id: ``list`` """ root = Element('CompleteMultipartUpload') for (count, etag) in chunks: part = SubElement(root, 'Part') part_no = SubElement(part, 'PartNumber') part_no.text = str(count) etag_id = SubElement(part, 'ETag') etag_id.text = str(etag) data = tostring(root) params = {'uploadId': upload_id} request_path = '?'.join((object_path, urlencode(params))) response = self.connection.request(request_path, data=data, method='POST') if response.status != httplib.OK: element = response.object # pylint: disable=maybe-no-member code, message = response._parse_error_details(element=element) msg = 'Error in multipart commit: %s (%s)' % (message, code) raise LibcloudError(msg, driver=self) # Get the server's etag to be passed back to the caller body = response.parse_body() server_hash = body.find(fixxpath(xpath='ETag', namespace=self.namespace)).text return server_hash def _abort_multipart(self, object_path, upload_id): """ Aborts an already initiated multipart upload :param object_path: Server side object path. :type object_path: ``str`` :param upload_id: ID of the multipart upload. :type upload_id: ``str`` """ params = {'uploadId': upload_id} request_path = '?'.join((object_path, urlencode(params))) resp = self.connection.request(request_path, method='DELETE') if resp.status != httplib.NO_CONTENT: raise LibcloudError('Error in multipart abort. status_code=%d' % (resp.status), driver=self)
[docs] def upload_object_via_stream(self, iterator, container, object_name, extra=None, ex_storage_class=None): """ @inherits: :class:`StorageDriver.upload_object_via_stream` :param ex_storage_class: Storage class :type ex_storage_class: ``str`` """ method = 'PUT' params = None # This driver is used by other S3 API compatible drivers also. # Amazon provides a different (complex?) mechanism to do multipart # uploads if self.supports_s3_multipart_upload: # Initiate the multipart request and get an upload id upload_func = self._upload_multipart upload_func_kwargs = {'iterator': iterator, 'container': container, 'object_name': object_name} method = 'POST' iterator = iter('') params = 'uploads' elif self.supports_chunked_encoding: upload_func = self._stream_data upload_func_kwargs = {'iterator': iterator} else: # In this case, we have to load the entire object to # memory and send it as normal data upload_func = self._upload_data upload_func_kwargs = {} return self._put_object(container=container, object_name=object_name, upload_func=upload_func, upload_func_kwargs=upload_func_kwargs, extra=extra, method=method, query_args=params, iterator=iterator, verify_hash=False, storage_class=ex_storage_class)
[docs] def delete_object(self, obj): object_path = self._get_object_path(obj.container, response = self.connection.request(object_path, method='DELETE') if response.status == httplib.NO_CONTENT: return True elif response.status == httplib.NOT_FOUND: raise ObjectDoesNotExistError(value=None, driver=self, return False
[docs] def ex_iterate_multipart_uploads(self, container, prefix=None, delimiter=None): """ Extension method for listing all in-progress S3 multipart uploads. Each multipart upload which has not been committed or aborted is considered in-progress. :param container: The container holding the uploads :type container: :class:`Container` :keyword prefix: Print only uploads of objects with this prefix :type prefix: ``str`` :keyword delimiter: The object/key names are grouped based on being split by this delimiter :type delimiter: ``str`` :return: A generator of S3MultipartUpload instances. :rtype: ``generator`` of :class:`S3MultipartUpload` """ if not self.supports_s3_multipart_upload: raise LibcloudError('Feature not supported', driver=self) # Get the data for a specific container request_path = '%s/?uploads' % (self._get_container_path(container)) params = {'max-uploads': RESPONSES_PER_REQUEST} if prefix: params['prefix'] = prefix if delimiter: params['delimiter'] = delimiter def finder(node, text): return node.findtext(fixxpath(xpath=text, namespace=self.namespace)) while True: response = self.connection.request(request_path, params=params) if response.status != httplib.OK: raise LibcloudError('Error fetching multipart uploads. ' 'Got code: %s' % response.status, driver=self) body = response.parse_body() # pylint: disable=maybe-no-member for node in body.findall(fixxpath(xpath='Upload', namespace=self.namespace)): initiator = node.find(fixxpath(xpath='Initiator', namespace=self.namespace)) owner = node.find(fixxpath(xpath='Owner', namespace=self.namespace)) key = finder(node, 'Key') upload_id = finder(node, 'UploadId') created_at = finder(node, 'Initiated') initiator = finder(initiator, 'DisplayName') owner = finder(owner, 'DisplayName') yield S3MultipartUpload(key, upload_id, created_at, initiator, owner) # Check if this is the last entry in the listing # pylint: disable=maybe-no-member is_truncated = body.findtext(fixxpath(xpath='IsTruncated', namespace=self.namespace)) if is_truncated.lower() == 'false': break # Provide params for the next request upload_marker = body.findtext(fixxpath(xpath='NextUploadIdMarker', namespace=self.namespace)) key_marker = body.findtext(fixxpath(xpath='NextKeyMarker', namespace=self.namespace)) params['key-marker'] = key_marker params['upload-id-marker'] = upload_marker
[docs] def ex_cleanup_all_multipart_uploads(self, container, prefix=None): """ Extension method for removing all partially completed S3 multipart uploads. :param container: The container holding the uploads :type container: :class:`Container` :keyword prefix: Delete only uploads of objects with this prefix :type prefix: ``str`` """ # Iterate through the container and delete the upload ids for upload in self.ex_iterate_multipart_uploads(container, prefix, delimiter=None): object_path = '/%s/%s' % (, upload.key) self._abort_multipart(object_path,
def _clean_object_name(self, name): name = urlquote(name) return name def _put_object(self, container, object_name, upload_func, upload_func_kwargs, method='PUT', query_args=None, extra=None, file_path=None, iterator=None, verify_hash=True, storage_class=None): headers = {} extra = extra or {} storage_class = storage_class or 'standard' if storage_class not in ['standard', 'reduced_redundancy']: raise ValueError( 'Invalid storage class value: %s' % (storage_class)) key = self.http_vendor_prefix + '-storage-class' headers[key] = storage_class.upper() content_type = extra.get('content_type', None) meta_data = extra.get('meta_data', None) acl = extra.get('acl', None) if meta_data: for key, value in list(meta_data.items()): key = self.http_vendor_prefix + '-meta-%s' % (key) headers[key] = value if acl: headers[self.http_vendor_prefix + '-acl'] = acl request_path = self._get_object_path(container, object_name) if query_args: request_path = '?'.join((request_path, query_args)) # TODO: Let the underlying exceptions bubble up and capture the SIGPIPE # here. # SIGPIPE is thrown if the provided container does not exist or the # user does not have correct permission result_dict = self._upload_object( object_name=object_name, content_type=content_type, upload_func=upload_func, upload_func_kwargs=upload_func_kwargs, request_path=request_path, request_method=method, headers=headers, file_path=file_path, iterator=iterator) response = result_dict['response'] bytes_transferred = result_dict['bytes_transferred'] headers = response.headers response = response.response server_hash = headers['etag'].replace('"', '') if (verify_hash and result_dict['data_hash'] != server_hash): raise ObjectHashMismatchError( value='MD5 hash checksum does not match', object_name=object_name, driver=self) elif response.status == httplib.OK: obj = Object( name=object_name, size=bytes_transferred, hash=server_hash, extra={'acl': acl}, meta_data=meta_data, container=container, driver=self) return obj else: raise LibcloudError( 'Unexpected status code, status_code=%s' % (response.status), driver=self) def _to_containers(self, obj, xpath): for element in obj.findall(fixxpath(xpath=xpath, namespace=self.namespace)): yield self._to_container(element) def _to_objs(self, obj, xpath, container): return [self._to_obj(element, container) for element in obj.findall(fixxpath(xpath=xpath, namespace=self.namespace))] def _to_container(self, element): extra = { 'creation_date': findtext(element=element, xpath='CreationDate', namespace=self.namespace) } container = Container(name=findtext(element=element, xpath='Name', namespace=self.namespace), extra=extra, driver=self ) return container def _headers_to_object(self, object_name, container, headers): hash = headers['etag'].replace('"', '') extra = {'content_type': headers['content-type'], 'etag': headers['etag']} meta_data = {} if 'last-modified' in headers: extra['last_modified'] = headers['last-modified'] for key, value in headers.items(): if not key.lower().startswith(self.http_vendor_prefix + '-meta-'): continue key = key.replace(self.http_vendor_prefix + '-meta-', '') meta_data[key] = value obj = Object(name=object_name, size=headers['content-length'], hash=hash, extra=extra, meta_data=meta_data, container=container, driver=self) return obj def _to_obj(self, element, container): owner_id = findtext(element=element, xpath='Owner/ID', namespace=self.namespace) owner_display_name = findtext(element=element, xpath='Owner/DisplayName', namespace=self.namespace) meta_data = {'owner': {'id': owner_id, 'display_name': owner_display_name}} last_modified = findtext(element=element, xpath='LastModified', namespace=self.namespace) extra = {'last_modified': last_modified} obj = Object(name=findtext(element=element, xpath='Key', namespace=self.namespace), size=int(findtext(element=element, xpath='Size', namespace=self.namespace)), hash=findtext(element=element, xpath='ETag', namespace=self.namespace).replace('"', ''), extra=extra, meta_data=meta_data, container=container, driver=self ) return obj
[docs]class S3StorageDriver(AWSDriver, BaseS3StorageDriver): connectionCls = S3Connection
[docs]class S3USWestConnection(S3Connection): host = S3_US_WEST_HOST
[docs]class S3USWestStorageDriver(S3StorageDriver): name = 'Amazon S3 (us-west-1)' connectionCls = S3USWestConnection ex_location_name = 'us-west-1'
[docs]class S3USWestOregonConnection(S3Connection): host = S3_US_WEST_OREGON_HOST
[docs]class S3USWestOregonStorageDriver(S3StorageDriver): name = 'Amazon S3 (us-west-2)' connectionCls = S3USWestOregonConnection ex_location_name = 'us-west-2'
[docs]class S3EUWestConnection(S3Connection): host = S3_EU_WEST_HOST
[docs]class S3EUWestStorageDriver(S3StorageDriver): name = 'Amazon S3 (eu-west-1)' connectionCls = S3EUWestConnection ex_location_name = 'EU'
[docs]class S3APSEConnection(S3Connection): host = S3_AP_SOUTHEAST_HOST
[docs]class S3APSEStorageDriver(S3StorageDriver): name = 'Amazon S3 (ap-southeast-1)' connectionCls = S3APSEConnection ex_location_name = 'ap-southeast-1'
[docs]class S3APNEConnection(S3Connection): host = S3_AP_NORTHEAST_HOST
[docs]class S3APNEStorageDriver(S3StorageDriver): name = 'Amazon S3 (ap-northeast-1)' connectionCls = S3APNEConnection ex_location_name = 'ap-northeast-1'
[docs]class S3SAEastConnection(S3Connection): host = S3_SA_EAST_HOST
[docs]class S3SAEastStorageDriver(S3StorageDriver): name = 'Amazon S3 (sa-east-1)' connectionCls = S3SAEastConnection ex_location_name = 'sa-east-1'