SSL Certificate Validation¶
When establishing a secure connection to a cloud provider endpoint, Libcloud verifies server SSL certificate. By default, Libcloud searches paths listed in libcloud.security.CA_CERTS_PATH variable for the CA certificate files.
CA_CERTS_PATH contains common paths to CA bundle installations on the following platforms:
- openssl package on CentOS / Fedora
- ca-certificates package on Debian / Ubuntu / Arch / Gentoo
- ca_root_nss port on FreeBSD
- curl-ca-bundle port on Mac OS X
If no valid CA certificate files are found, you will see an error message similar to the one bellow:
No CA Certificates were found in CA_CERTS_PATH.
Acquiring CA Certificates¶
If the above packages are unavailable to you, and you don’t wish to roll your own, the makers of cURL provides an excellent resource, generated from Mozilla: http://curl.haxx.se/docs/caextract.html.
Using a custom CA certificate¶
If you want to use a custom CA certificate file for validating the server certificate, you can do that using two different approaches:
- Setting SSL_CERT_FILE environment variable to point to your CA file
SSL_CERT_FILE=/home/user/path-to-your-ca-file.crt python my_script.py
- Setting libcloud.security.CA_CERTS_PATH variable in your script to point to your CA file
import libcloud.security libcloud.security.CA_CERTS_PATH = ['/home/user/path-to-your-ca-file.crt'] # Instantiate and work with the driver here...
Adding additional CA certificate to the path¶
If you want to add an additional CA certificate to the CA_CERTS_PATH, you can do this by appending a path to your CA file to the libcloud.security.CA_CERTS_PATH list.
import libcloud.security libcloud.security.CA_CERTS_PATH.append('/home/user/path-to-your-ca-file.crt') # Instantiate and work with the driver here...
Disabling SSL certificate validation¶
Disabling SSL certificate validations makes you vulnerable to MITM attacks so you are strongly discouraged from doing that. You should only disable it if you are aware of the consequences and you know what you are doing.
To disable SSL certificate validation, set libcloud.security.VERIFY_SSL_CERT variable to False at the top of your script, before instantiating a driver and interacting with other Libcloud code.
import libcloud.security libcloud.security.VERIFY_SSL_CERT = True # Instantiate and work with the driver here...